A collection of specific topics on glass and glazing.
If you have more questions, however, please contact your local Advanced Architectural Glass representative or Technical Advisory Consultants, or click here to order a sample.
Information on glass and its use.
- Annealed Glass
- Heat Strengthned Glass
- Tempered (Toughened) Glass
- Laminated Glass
- Insulating Glass
- Warm Edge Spacer
- Tinted Glass Comparison with Coated Glass Performance
- Spandrel Glass
- Common Glass Configurations
- Energy Conservation and Coated Glass
- Glass Performance
- SunGuard Advanced Architectural Glass
- Acoustic Information
- How to View and Evaluate Glass Samples
- Optical distorsion
- Thermal Breakage
- Heat Soak Test
- Wind and Snow Loads
- Bending Guardian Sputter Coated Glass
- Glass Edge Types
- Common Causes of Breakages
- Glass Handling, Storage, Maintenance and Cleaning
- Coated Glass: Maximum and Minimum Sizes
- Special Consideration for Large Finished Glass Sizes
- Statistical Probability of Glass Breakage
- Quality Inspection Guidelines
- Moire Patterns
- Strain Pattern
- Product Warranty
Float glass that has not been tempered or heat strengthened is annealed glass. Annealing float glass is the process of controlled cooling to prevent residual stress in the glass and is an inherent operation of the float glass manufacturing process. Annealed glass can be cut, machined, drilled, edged and polished.
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Heat strengthened glass has been subjected to a heating and cooling cycle and is generally twice as strong as annealed glass of the same thickness and configuration. Heat strengthened glass must comply with all the requirements of EN 1863: Parts 1 & 2. Heat strengthened glass has greater resistance to thermal loads than annealed glass and, when broken in service, the fragments are typically larger than those of tempered glass. Heat strengthened glass is not a safety glass product as defined by European Building Regulations and Standards. This type of glass is intended for general glazing, where additional strength is required to withstand wind load and thermal stress. It does not require the strength of tempered glass, and is intended for applications that do not specifically require a safety glass product. Heat strengthened glass cannot be cut or drilled after heat strengthening and any alterations, such as edge-grinding, sandblasting or acid-etching, will weaken the glass and can cause premature failure.
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Thermally tempered glass is approximately four times stronger than annealed glass of the same thickness and configuration, and must comply with the requirements of EN 12150: Parts 1 & 2. When broken, it usually will break into small fragments, which are less likely to cause serious injury. The typical process to produce thermally tempered glass involves heating the glass to over 600 degrees Celsius, then rapidly cooling to lock the glass surfaces in a state of compression and the core in a state of tension as shown in the diagram. Tempered glass is often referred to as "safety glass" because it meets the requirements of the various European Building Regulations and Standards that set standards for safety glass. This type of glass is intended for general glazing, and safety glazing such as in sliding doors, building entrances, bath and shower enclosures, interior partitions and other uses requiring increased strength and safety properties. Tempered glass cannot be further processed - such as cutting, drilling, edge grinding -after toughening and any alterations, such as sandblasting or acid-etching will weaken the glass and can cause premature failure.
Back to TopLAMINATED GLASS
Laminated glass consists of two or more lites permanently bonded together with one or more polyvinylbutyral (PVB) interlayers using heat and pressure. The glass and interlayers can be a variety of colours and thicknesses designed to meet relevant building code standards and requirements as necessary. Laminated glass can be broken, but the fragments will tend to adhere to the plastic (PVB) interlayer and remain largely intact, reducing the risk of injury. Laminated glass is considered "safety glass" because it meets the requirements of the various European Building Regulations and Standards. Heat strengthened and tempered glass can be incorporated into laminated glass units to further strengthen the impact resistance. Bomb blast protection, the need for sound attenuation and ballistic or security concerns are all uses for laminated glass.
Insulating glass refers to two or more lites of glass sealed around the edges with a perimeter spacer creating a cavity between, to form a single unit. Commonly referred to as an "IG unit," insulating glass is the most effective way to reduce air-to-air thermal transfer through the glazing. When used in conjunction with low emissivity and/or reflective glass coatings, IG units become effective means to conserve energy and comply with energy regulations.
Low emissivity coatings have gradually become better at reducing air-to-air heat transfer, and spacer technology has become the focus of incremental thermal improvements. Typical commercial spacers are composed of formed aluminium filled with desiccant to absorb any residual moisture inside the IG unit, thus reducing the potential for condensation to form. While this is a structurally strong material, the aluminum-to-glass contact point is a very efficient thermal conductor and can increase the potential for temperature differential between the center of glass and the edge of glass, which can lead to condensation and reduces the overall thermal insulation (u value) of the window.
The spacer in an insulating glass unit is at the perimeter between the panes and ensures a constant width of cavity. Standard spacer is constructed from either aluminium or stainless steel, but the recent development of warm edge spacers now includes open cell foams, polyamides, plastic, polyisobutylene and composite constructions.
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Warm edge spacer technology is another option for improving the thermal properties, reducing condensation and reducing u values in insulating glass units. There are a number of warm-edge spacer designs available, all of which thermally break the metal-to-glass contact point to some degree, while offering varying levels of structural integrity that may or may not be suitable for commercial applications. Warm-edge spacers can significantly reduce heat conduction when compared to conventional aluminium spacers.
TINTED GLASS COMPARISON WITH COATED GLASS PERFORMANCE
Coatings are designed to reduce the amount of direct solar energy entering the building. Before the development of these coatings, architects relied on body tinted glass to reduce solar energy transmission. Tinted glass almost always requires heat treatment to reduce potential thermal stress breakage and tends to reradiate the absorbed heat. Solar reflective coatings are effective at reducing heat gain but also reduce visible light transmission. High performance low emissivity coatings are usually designed to reflect solar energy away from the glazing, often without requiring heat-treatment
Spandrel glass is the area of glass panels that conceal structural building components such as columns, floor slabs, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, electrical wiring, plumbing, etc. often contained within false ceilings on each floor of a building, spandrel glass is typically located between vision glasses on each floor.
Curtain wall and structurally glazed designs often require the use of spandrel glass to achieve a designer's vision of the finished project. Spandrel glass applications can be a complementary or contrasting color with respect to the vision glass appearance. Spandrel glass must be heat treated to avoid thermal stress breakage. Guardian has extensive experience with spandrel glass applications and can help architects and building owners achieve the desired appearance, while reducing the risk of thermal stress breakage.
When high light transmission or low reflection vision glass is specified, achieving an exact spandrel match can be challenging. Daylight conditions can have a dramatic effect on the perception of vision to spandrel appearance. For example, a clear, bright sunny day produces highly reflective viewing conditions and may provide a good vision to spandrel glass match. A grey, cloudy day may allow more visual transmission from the exterior and produce more contrast between the vision and spandrel glass. Guardian recommends full size, outdoor mock-ups be prepared and approved in order to confirm the most desirable spandrel option for a specific project.
For further information regarding particular colour matching spandrel solutions and the manufacturing of reflective spandrel glass based on SunGuard please refer to our specific directives. These documents can be obtained from our Guardian technical centers or from your local sales representative.
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The following images depict the most common glass configurations and identify the glass surfaces with numbers showing the glass surfaces counting from exterior to interior.
The use of coated glass and insulating glass units can have a significant impact on the energy consumption of commercial buildings. A reduction of the cooling capacity of the air conditioning system reduces the initial investment, and annual savings from reduced energy consumption for heating and cooling requirements provides a return on glazing investment year after year. (Studies have shown that over a ten year period, the energy savings from high performance coated glass can be considerable and for a typical six story building, the payback can be as little as two years. )
Guardian Industries has invested substantial resources over the years in search of reduced solar heat gain and U-values of commercial coated glass products. The SunGuard product range is one of the results of that investment providing a wide range of performance characteristics to satisfy the requirements of European Building Regulations and Standards. SunGuard products are among the highest performing, most energy-efficient coatings available today.
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Today's advanced architectural glazing products attempt to balance the demands of aesthetic appearance, energy conservation and building occupant comfort. Theoretically speaking, an "ideal" solar control glazing would transmit the sun's visible energy (light) and reflect, or block, the ultraviolet and infrared energy, while providing an aesthetically pleasing appearance from both the exterior and interior of the building. Guardian has scientists dedicated to finding new technologies to
achieve the best energy performance possible, coupled with desirable aesthetics to help designers find that balance.
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The SunGuard glass product line is designed to deliver energy efficiency that will meet or exceed energy standard requirements and includes products offering a variety of aesthetically pleasing colour options. The High Selective range presents the highest performing energy characteristics available in high light transmitting low emissivity coatings from Guardian. The High Performance range provides a selection of light transmission, reflection and energy conservation qualities to choose from. The Solar range lets the design professional work with traditional "reflective" coatings that are excellent at lowering heat gain.
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The acoustic performance of windows and glazing assemblies may be defined by a number of terms; the most common being the acoustic performance measured at octave centre frequencies of 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hertz. The attenuation of various glass configurations needs to be established by measurement and used as a guide to the acoustic attenuation performance of the glass. There are also single figure acoustic indices, the two most commonly used being the weighted reduction , Rw, which includes a correction for the varying sensitivity of the human ear at different frequencies and traffic noise reduction, RA,tr, which is relative to a standard traffic noise spectrum. The above terms have now been integrated into a single number quantity in accordance with EN ISO 717-1, which defines three terms as follows;
Where Rw is called the weighted sound reduction index, which takes account of the human ears sensitivity to a range of frequencies and may be used to compare the performance of alternative products.
C is the adaptation term for pink noise, which considers higher frequencies and is determined by the equation
(Rw + C) = RA
Ctr is the adaptation term for the traffic noise spectrum, which considers lower frequencies and is determined by the equation
(Rw + Ctr) = RA,tr
For further information regarding acoustic performance solutions and Guardian's range of laminated glass products with special sound control features please refer to our specific documents which can be obtained from our Guardian technical centers or from your local sales representative.
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Coated glass is normally selected based on technical requirements and reflected colour, as is seen in normal outdoor lighting conditions. To see the reflected colour of glass, it is best to view samples against a black background.
Guardian recommends that samples be viewed in natural outdoor lighting conditions, preferably in a slightly overcast condition, for the most accurate rendering of transmitted and reflected colour. Architects are also encouraged to consider angle of observation, interior lighting conditions and potential effects of glare when choosing glazing products.
When evaluating samples outdoors, we recommend viewing them during various times of the day and under varying lighting conditions, e.g., cloudy versus sunny conditions. This will provide a more accurate indication of what the glass will look like, as well as give you the opportunity to see how varying light conditions impact your design intent.
We recommend viewing glass samples outdoors whenever possible. Place samples in a vertical or slightly angled position. Viewing the glass with a black background not to close behind the sample is preferred to replicate lighting once installed in the structure. Then look through the glass to provide the best indication of
the appearance of installed glass.
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Many conditions may contribute to optical distortion, including glazing errors and processing procedures. Minimising optical distortion resulting from a heat treatment process will greatly enhance the appearance of the final product. Roller wave and bow are sources of optical distortion that can result from tempering or heat strengthening and as such influence the appearance of the final product.
* Roller wave occurs as glass passes over the rollers in a horizontal, oscillating heat treatment furnace. As the glass heats up, it may sag between the rollers at the reversal of each oscillation, which then becomes "set" in place during the cooling (quench) process. This may produce roller wave distortion in the finished product.
* Bow occurs as a result of the heat treatment process and can be reduced through the correct control of the heating and cooling. EN 12150 addresses bow and describes how overall and local bow and should be determined.
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Thermal breakage can be influenced by a number of factors. There are many factors to be considered in the early stages of glass selection that can influence the thermal stress in the finished product.
One element to be considered is whether the glass will be shaded. When glass is partially shaded by building overhangs or extensions, it becomes cooler in those areas and stress in the glass may occur, which can result in thermal breakage. The degree to which the central area of the glass becomes hot is largely dependent on the solar absorption of the glass, which varies between different types of glass.
In areas where thermal breakage may be of concern, a thermal stress analysis must be completed to determine if heat treatment (heat-strengthening or tempering) may be needed.
Heat treatment may anyway be required due to high wind loads or safety glass requirements.
Some additional factors that may influence thermal breakage are listed below:
* Highly conductive glass framing or framing that is in direct contact with concrete or other materials that may contribute to the cooling of the glass edge
* Excessive coverage of the glass edge by the frame
* Heat absorbent film attached to the glass after installation
* The use of internal shading devices such as curtains, drapes or venetian blinds increases the thermal stress and should be validated with a thermal analysis.
* The airflow from room cooling or heating vents must be directed away from the glass
* Glass may also be subject to thermal stress during on site storage, prior to be glazed. Care should be taken to store glass in a clean dry environment which is not in direct sunlight.
* Buildings not heated during the construction phase may experience an increase in thermal breakage
The potential risk of thermal breakage can be estimated by a computer aided thermal stress analysis. Contact your Guardian representative or local technical department for assistance.
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All float glass contains some level of imperfection. One type of imperfection are nickel sulphide (NiS) inclusions. Most NiS inclusions are stable and cause no problems. There is, however, the potential for NiS inclusions that may cause spontaneous breakage in fully tempered glass without any load or thermal stress being applied.
Heat soak testing is a process that exposes critical NiS inclusions in fully tempered glass. The process involves placing the tempered glass inside a chamber and raising the temperature to approximately 290ºC to accelerate nickel sulphide expansion. This causes glass containing nickel sulphide inclusions to break in the heat soak chamber, thus reducing t he risk of potential field breakage. The heat soak process is not 100 percent effective, but provides a defined level of confidence that is described in EN 14179.
Heat-strengthened glass has a much lower potential incidence of spontaneous breakage than tempered glass, and may be used where additional glass strength is required but safety glazing neither mandatory nor specified.
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Wind and snow loads are usually considered and calculated in accordance with local Standards and Regulations depending where the building is sited. Guardian is capable of determining the minimum thickness for the type of glass to be installed to resist the specified loads. These loads must be addressed in the early stages of design. Contact your Guardian representative or local technical department for assistance with wind and snow load analysis.
Glass Centre Deflection: An important consideration in the choice of glass is centre deflection. Excessive centre deflection can result in edge pullout, distortion of reflected images and possible glass contact with interior building components, e.g., room dividers and interior blinds.
Insulating Glass: The effects of wind on insulating glass units are, in many cases, complex and require a computer assisted wind load analysis to adequately consider some of the variables.
Design professionals must take into account the following variables:
* Load sharing other than 50-50
* Air space contraction and expansion due to changes in temperature, barometric pressure and altitude variation in weathering of the glass surfaces, e.g., surface #1 vs. surface #2
* Glass edge supported on all sides or only partially
* Asymmetrical loading, i.e., panes of different thickness
* Thermal stress
When all or some of these variables are taken into account, the maximum wind load may vary considerably.
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SunGuard heat treatable coatings are thermally stable and have been utilised in bent glass applications. SunGuard products used in bent glass applications maintain their aesthetic, optical and performance properties. Bending constraints are based on coating type, choice of bending process (tempered versus annealed bending), radius and concave vs. convex applications. Guardian recommends a full scale mock-up be produced and viewed prior to final specification approval. Please contact your Guardian representative or technical department for further advice and information regarding bent glass applications.
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The condition of the edge of finished glass products can impact the long term structural performance of the glass system. The adjacent table of edge types is provided to help design professionals understand typical applications.
Glass is potentially very strong; however, the strength is significantly reduced by the presence of tiny surface defects, known as Griffith Flaws, which act as points of stress concentrations from which cracks propagate. The strength may be further weakened by visible defects.
Most glass breakage is caused by one or more of the following conditions:
* Surface or edge damage
* Weld splatter
* Windborne debris
* Glass to metal contact
* Thermal overstressing
In order to minimise the risk of glass breakage a th ermal stress analysis should be carried out prior to the glass processing. The glass should always be stored in clean and dry conditions
away from direct sunlight or excessive moisture. Glass should always be protected during handling, transport and storage at all stages including during glazind. For further assistance please contact your Guardian representative.
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Glass is a hard substance, but it can be scratched. Glass is resistant to many, but not all, chemicals. Glass is generally a durable material, and if properly maintained, can last almost forever.
One of the most harmful materials to glass is glass itself. When glass is stored prior to fabrication, it should be separated by an airspace, suitable separator or paper. When removing glass from storage, avoid sliding one pane over another, as they can be scratched or abraded. Glass edges should not contact the frame or other hard surfaces during installation.
Glass should be washed frequently to remove surface dirt and also to protect the glass from staining. Glass staining occurs when the sodium within the glass reacts with moisture in the air. Sodium, when combined with small amounts of water, can create sodium hydroxide, which is corrosive to glass. If this sodium hydroxide is left on the glass surface for a prolonged period of time, the glass will be permanently damaged and may have to be replaced. The sodium hydroxide is easily removed with water and normal glass cleaning solutions, e.g., alcohol and water, or ammonia and water. Installed glass is less prone to sodium hydroxide damage due to the natural cleansing of the glass surface by rain.
Recommended Cleaning or Washing Solutions
A. General Glass Cleaning
* Use water applied by a saturated clean cloth.
* Use proprietary glass cleaning solutions ensure you follow all printed instructions. Immediately remove cleaning solutions with a clean, soft, dry cloth.
* Use a 50-50 mixture of alcohol and water, or ammonia and water, followed by a warm rinse. Glass must be dried with a clean, soft cloth or a chamois and cellulose sponge.
* Avoid abrasive or highly alkaline cleaners. Do not use petroleum products, i.e., petrol, diesel or lighter fluid.
* Hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid are corrosive to the glass surface and should not be used.
* Protect the glass surface from over spray or runoff from acids and cleaning agents used to clean metal framing, brick or masonry and splatter from welding processes.
* Keep all cleaning solutions and other materials from contacting the edges of laminated glass or insulated glass.
* Do not use abrasive brushes, razor blades or other objects that may scratch the glass.
* Immediately remove any construction materials, i.e., concrete, fireproofing, paints, labels and tapes.
* Clean a small area at a time, and inspect the glass surface frequently to ensure that no glass damage has occurred.
* For most effective results, clean glass at a time when its surface is shaded. Avoid direct sunlight or hot glass.
For the correct handling and treatment of coated glass please refer to Guardian's Processing Directives for Architectural Glass Products.
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To determine the minimum and maximum sizes available for finished glass products, the glass processor must be consulted. Physical or mechanical capabilities together with constraints of the processor will affect the final finished glass size availability.
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It is important for designers to understand that the maximum glass sizes manufactured by Guardian, do not suggest that insulating glass unit and heat treatment equipment capabilities can process these sizes. To the contrary, there are man y considerations th at need to be taken into account when designing glazing for today's architecture.
Maximum glass sizes available from the primary manufacturer are one consideration, the processing equipment limitations, capabilities of the contract glazier to install the unit, availability of specialised transport and handling equipment to deliver the unit, and the specific glass configuration, such as coated glass, silk-screened glass, and heat treated glass, laminated glass, insulated glass or some combination of these items.
Guardian recommends the specific glass configuration be reviewed with a glass processor so that the availability of glass to meet project lead times and budget can be confirmed.
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Statistical probability of glass breakage is a complex topic. The following section should only be regarded as an introduction to the issue.
Glass is a brittle material. It acts elastically until it fractures at ultimate load. That ultimate load varies, depending upon the type and duration of the loads applied and the distribution, orientation and severity of the inhomogeneities and micro-flaws existing in the surface of the glass. Because of its nature, glass cannot be engineered in the same way as other building envelope materials with a predictable specific strength. In those cases, factors are assigned to minimise the likelihood that breakage will occur at the selected design load. Because the ultimate strength of glass varies, its strength is described statistically. Architects and engineers, when specifying a design factor for glass in buildings, must choose the anticipated wind load, its duration and the probability of glass breakage (defined as x per 1000 panes of glass at the initial occurrence of the design load). Glass manufacturers can provide the appropriate data for determining the performance of their products. However, the responsible design professional must revie w these performance criteria and determine if they are suitable for the intended application.
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The following quality standards are offered as suggested guidelines for the evaluation of coated glass products, based partially on current European Standard EN 1096.
* Normal viewing distance is a minimum of 3 metres for vision glass and 5 metres for spandrel glass. The viewing angle should be 90º against a bright, uniform background. Spandrel glass is viewed against a dark, uniform background.
* The area of most importance is the central viewing area, which is defined by 90% of the length and 90% of the width dimensions centered on a pane of glass. The remaining area is considered the outer area. No more than 20 seconds should be spent viewing the glass.
Pinholes and Clusters (viewed in transmission):
* Pinholes between 2 and 3mm are acceptable if not more than 1/m2.
* A cluster is defined as two or more pinholes up to 2mm each that are readily apparent.
* Clusters of pinholes within the central viewing area are not acceptable, but are acceptable in the outer area.
Scratches (viewed in transmission):
* Scratches longer than 75 mm within the central viewing area are not acceptable.
Colour uniformity (viewed in reflection):
* Colour variations are acceptable as long as they are not regarded as visually disturbing. This applies to colour variation within one pane or variations between different panes.
Spandrel Glass (viewed in reflection):
* Co lour and reflectance may vary slightly overall and be considered acceptable.
* Pinholes up to 3 mm are acceptable.
* Scratches up to 75 mm are acceptable.
Moiré is an optical phenomenon that may appear as a wavy, rippled or circular pattern under certain lighting conditions. Moiré patterns may be created when one pane with a repetitive pattern is placed over another and the two are not aligned. This may occur when the outer pane has a pattern which casts a shadow on a pane behind it which flood coated as in a spandrel. Another possibility under certain lighting conditions is a reflection from a glass surface in vision glazing.
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Strain pattern refers to a specific geometric pattern of iridescence or darkish shadows that may appear under certain lighting conditions, particularly in the presence of polarised light (also referred to as "quench marks", "leopard spots" or anisotropy). The phenomena are caused by the localised stresses imparted by the rapid air cooling of the heat treatment process. Strain pattern is characteristic of heat treated glass and is not considered a defect.
Condensation will form on the glass when the surface temperature falls below the dew point. The used of a low E coating on surface 3 of an insulating glass unit will help to reduce the incidence of condensation on surface 4, facing the room. Very rarely condensation may occur temporarily on the outside surface of a unit, surface one, but this is usually transient and due to specific weather conditions.
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The evolution of the building industry has resulted in the development of Building Regulations and Standards at local, national and international levels that ensure constructions are sound, energy efficient and environmentally conscious. Many of the Standards relate to glazing components and the use of glass in buildings. The list below comprises some of the European Standards.
EN 356: 2000: Glass in Building. Security Glazing. Testing and classi fication of resistance against manual attack.
EN 357: 2004 Glass in building. Fire resistant glazed elements with transparent or translucent glass products. Classification of fire resistance.
EN 410: 1998 Glass in Building. Determination of luminous and solar characteristics of glazing.
EN 572: Glass in Building. Basic soda lime silicate glass products
Part 1: 2004 Definitions and general physical and mechanical properties.
Part 2: 2004 Float glass
Part 3: 2004 Polished wired glass
Part 4: 2004 Drawn sheet glass
Part 5: 2004 Patterned glass
Part 6: 2004 Wired patterned glass
Part 7: 2004 Wired or unwired channel shaped glass
Part 8: 2004 Supplied and final cut sizes
Part 9: 2004 Evaluation of conformity / Product Standard
EN 673: 1998 Thermal performance of windows and doors. Determination of thermal transmittance by hot box method.
EN 1036-1 Glass in building. Mirrors from silver coated float glass for internal use
EN 1036-2 Glass in building. Mirrors from silver coated glass for internal use. Evaluation of conformity / Product Standard
EN 1063: 2000: Glass in Building. Security Glazing. Testing and classification of resistance against bullet attack.
EN 1096-1 Glass in Building. Coated
Part 1: Definitions and classification
Part 2: Requirements and tests method for class A, B and S coatings.
Part 3: Requirements and test methods for class C and D coatings.
Part 4: Evaluation of conformity / Product Standard
EN 1279: Glass in Buildings. Insulation Glass Units.
Part 1: 2004 Generalities, dimensional tolerances and rules for the system description.
Part 2: 2005 Long term test method and requirements for moisture penetration
Part 3: 2005 Long term test method and requirements for gas leakage rate and for gas concentration tolerances.
Part 4: 2002 Methods of test for the physical attributes of edge seals
Part 5: 2005 Evaluation of conformity
Part 6: 2002 Factory production control and periodic tests.
EN 1363: 1999 Fire Resistance tests
Part 1 General requirements.
Part 2 Alternative and additional procedures
EN 1364: Part 1: Fire resistence tests for non-load bearing elements. Walls including glazing.
EN 1863 Glass in building. Heat strengthened soda lime silicate glass
Part 1: Definition and description
Part 2 : Evaluation of conformity/ Product standard
EN 12150-1 Glass in building. Thermally tempered soda lime silicate safety glass.
Part 1: Definition and description
Part 2: Evaluation of conformity /Product standard
EN ISO 12543-1 Glass in building. Laminated glass and laminated safety glass
Part 1: Definitions and description of component parts
Part 2 : Laminated safety glass
Part 3: Laminated glass
Part 4: Test methods for durability
Part 5: Dimensions and edge finishing
Part 6: Appearance
EN 12567: Glass in Building. Determination of thermal transmittance ( U value). Calculation method
Part 1: 2000 Complete windows and other projection windows.
Part 2: 2005 Roof windows and other projection windows.
EN 12600: Glass in Building. Pendulum Test. Impact test method and classification for flat glass.
EN 12758 Glass in Building. Glazing and airborne sound insulation. Product descriptions and determination of properties.
EN 13501-2: Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Part 2: Classification using data from fire resistance tests, excluding ventilation services.
EN 13541 Glass in Building. Security glazing. Testing and classification of resistance against explosion.
EN 14072: 2003: Glass in furniture. Test methods.
EN 14179 Glass in Building. Heat soaked thermally tempered soda lime silicate safety glass
Part 1: Definition and description
Part 2: Evaluation of conformity/Product standard
EN ISO 14438 Glass in Building. Determination of energy balance. Calculation method.
EN 14449 Glass in Building. Laminated glass and laminated safety glass. Evaluation of conformity/Product standard.
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During a period of ten (10) years from the date of manufacture, SunGuard coated glass manufactured by Guardian Industries Corp. or its subsidiaries is warranted, to its immediate customer only, subject to the terms and conditions of this Limited warranty, not to develop peeling, cracking or deterioration in the metallic film. When SunGuard glass is laminated with the coating facing the PVB, the warranty is five (5) years from date of manufacture.